Thursday, January 17, 2019

If this is Thursday it must be postcards, 384

Throne of Maximian, Ravenna, Italy, ca 545-553 AD

This unused postcard was found in the gift shop of the Museo Arcivescovile di Ravenna, Italia.  The card is distributed by Opera di Religione, Della Diocesi di Ravenna.  The museum was one of the places we visited while in Ravenna, Italy.  No photographs were allowed in the museum so I was pleased to find a few postcards in the shop.

Described as the most precious relic of the museum, the ivory throne was made for Archibishop Maximianus of Ravenna, who served as bishop in the mid 6th century, and gifted to him by Justinian I.  The throne is an example of early Christian Byzantine art and is dated between 545 and 553 AD.  It is made of carved ivory panels set on a wooden frame.   Originally there were 24 panels of which 16 have been restored.  Missing panels have been replaced by blank spaces.  Each panel has relief scenes of important Biblical figures.  For example the back of the throne contains scenes from the Life of Christ.  Other panels have scenes from the Book of Genesis, the story of Joseph, and John the Baptist.  Because two different types of techniques were used on the panels it is thought that two to four artists probably worked on the throne; possibly because the principal master may have died before the piece was completed. 

Some believed that the throne was not meant for the personal use of the bishop but was a symbol of imperial or divine power.  It was carried during religious ceremonies.  The decorative carvings on the back side of the throne suggest that it was designed to be moved out of the apse and placed so that the back was visible to the congregation and not always placed against a wall.  How big is the throne?  It is about the size of a small chair, 22 inches or 0.6 m wide by 4 feet 11 inches or 1.5 meters high.  It is displayed in a glass case and can be viewed from all sides.

Ravenna was at that time the western capital of the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire.  Maximian was a protégé of Justinian I and may have acted as regent for the Emperor as well as the bishop. 

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Thursday, January 10, 2019

If this is Thursday it must be postcards, 383

 Ice skaters and windmills, Holland

We had a 6-hour layover in Amsterdam on the way to Spain that provided ample time to walk the airport mall in search of postcards and other things including some food.  This card was so pretty and it seemed to be a good one to share during the month of January.  The photographer is not identified on the card but the design is from PaperClip.

The picture does not have tulips but it does have two other familiar symbols associated with Holland or the Netherlands, ice-skating and windmills.   Although the winters are generally mild, skating is one of the most popular sports in the Netherlands.  The preferred skating surface is outside on the frozen canals, ponds, streams and channels.  Skating is open to all and free entertainment that can be enjoyed by all.  The long stretches, such as the one depicted on the card, allow for long distance as well as figure skating. 

Today’s skates are quite different from those used when skating first began in Holland around the 16th century and even those in use about 100 year ago.  The old skates had wooden runners with a piece of iron underneath to provide the edge necessary to cut into the ice.  Some of the little children are taught to skate as soon as they can walk.  Skating was not just for entertainment but also provided a way to travel distances during the wintertime before other forms of transportation was available.

Windmills have been used in Holland since the second half of the 12th century.  They have been used since antiquity not just in Holland but also in many countries.  They were, and are used to mill grain, to power sawmills, paper mills, threshing mills and to process things like oil seeds, wool, paint and stone products and as drainage mills where the soil is unstable.  There are about 9,000 windmills in the Netherlands.

Today modern giant windmills are being used worldwide to generate electric power.   Holland has 1,050 wind and 150 watermills.  There are several windmills that are open to the public on Saturdays.  Volunteers are happy to explain how they work. 

The most common configuration is four vanes or sails as shown on the card.  Sails have sailcloth attached to the vane frame and are adjustable according to the wind speed.  The mill is stopped, the adjustments made to the sail and then restarted.  In the Netherlands when the windmill is not at work the position of the sails has been used to give signals from joy to mourning. 

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Thursday, January 3, 2019

If this is Thursday it must be postcards, 382

Photographs of Castell de Guadalest by A. Murillo y S. Mikalauskas appear on this three-paneled postcard distributed by Ediciones A.M.  The Grand House is the sprawling complex on right of the top picture.  The castle is on the top of the hill and the bell tower can be seen off to the right slightly lower than the castle.  These unused cards were purchased from a small shop in Guadalest.  The second card shows some different views and features photographs by Miguel A. Gomez.  

The third card shows the bell tower from the level of the walkway and has another photograph by Miguel A. Gomez. 

 Bell tower

Guadalest is one of the several places we visited with cousins while in Spain last October.  The Grand House, church and castle are open to the public for a fee.  It was suggested that we go through the house first before continuing up the hill to the church and the castle so we did. 

The sheet we picked up at the beginning of the self-guided tour gave information about the family and the house.  The house built after the devastating earthquake of 1644 is called Casa Orduña or El Castell de Gaudalest.  This same earthquake demolished the buttress of the castle.  The Orduña family had Basque lineage.  In 1543 D. Sancho de Cardona received the title of Marques of Gudalest.  The family served as guardians of the fortress and governors of the estate for almost 300 years.  

 The village street

This building was covered with flower pots

During the war of Succession in 1708 the house was burnt down and plundered but later rebuilt.  In 1756 D. Pedro Antonio Buenaventura de Orduña y Garcia entered the military order of Santiago and became of member of the aristocracy.  Throughout the centuries the male members of the family were principally lawyers and military men.  

One small section of the library.  The books at the left are the ones that were hand bound and contained text done in calligraphy.

Illuminated book with family crest

The Orduña family owns all the belongings in the house.  One of the most stunning things was the library with over 1200 books, some hand illuminated, hand bound, and containing beautiful calligraphy.  For me these books were more impressive than the other furnishing and artwork as evidence of the incredible wealth of the family.  

Another personal treat was discovering these two large family trees prominently displayed on the walls in one area along with a family crest.  

Looking down on the Grand House and the lake from the castle

The house itself is also interesting as it sits on an irregular plot with one half on the eastern side supported by and overhanging rock.  It was constructed with a combination of stone masonry walls, timber, plaster and ceramic brickwork and has four levels plus a wine cellar. Some of the rooms are either roped off, but can be peeked into, or had locked doors but many were open and could be walked through including the kitchen, the dining area, the map room, state rooms, hall of arches, the entrance hall, the library, an exhibition room of paintings and sculptures and the virgin chamber.  In the virgin chamber there is a life size recumbent image in a glass “urn” or coffin.   This is loaned to the people of Guadalest for religious processional celebrations in August and at other times always kept in the Grand House.

 After exiting the Grand House we climbed up stairs and walked up pathways past the church, the bell tower and up to the castle at the top of the hill.

Looking up at the bell tower

Looking down on the bell tower as we climbed up to the castle

The castle.  Notice the castle window above

Looking out of the castle window down to the lake

Part of a small cemetery associated with the church 

Inside the small church part way up to the castle

Stations of the cross like this one were positioned all along the pathway up to the church

Looking out toward the countryside from the castle

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